Alkylphosphonic and alkylphosphoric acids are less often characterized compared to silanes and thiols, but they are the becoming of great practical interest because of their ability to produce SAMs on a range of metal oxide surfaces (TiO2 , ZrO2 , Al2O3 , Ta2O5 , Nb2O5 , ITO, MgO ect.). The reaction of long-chain alkylphosphonic  or phosphoric  acids with metal oxide supports leads to dense, well-ordered SAMs. Phosphonates and phosphonic acids form SAMs on metal surfaces by the formation of metal-O-P bonds. The deposition technique is based on SAMs made from aqueous alkyl phosphate solutions, which has the advantage of not using organic solvents . However, well-ordered SAMs can be also obtained from organic solutions as well. Advantages of these SAMs compared to silane ones are a higher hydrolytic stability under physiological conditions and the fact that no surface conditioning (i.e., acid treatment) is required to obtain high coverage. We have developed the a range of alkylthiophosphates bearing additional functional groups (OH, EG3OH, NH2, COOH, CONHS) at terminal position, what allows further elaboration of SAMs by chemical attachment of relevant molecules.
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