The amino terminus allows for versatile in situ modification of SAMs terminated with either -COOH groups or active esters. The maleimide functionality is ideal for immobilization of various thiol-containing compounds including peptides, thiolated DNA, carbohydrates, and others. For details see Houseman, B.T.; Gawalt, E.S.; Mrksich, M. Langmuir, 2003, 19, 1522.